The agricultural sector plays an important role in the Turkish economy and is developing dynamically: agricultural input in GDP more than doubled from $24 billion to $58 billion in 2002-2022. 

The gross harvest is prevailed by cereals (38.7 million tons), vegetables (31.6 million tons), fruits and berries (26.8 million tons). Turkey's main agricultural crops are wheat and tomatoes. In 2022, the total volume of wheat production in the country amounted to 19.8 million tons, which is 11.9% higher than in 2021. At the same time, wheat production peaked in 2020. The volume of tomato production amounted to 13.0 million tons. Turkey is a world leader in the production of apricots, quinces, figs and other crop products.

The leading branches of animal husbandry in Turkey are dairy cattle breeding and poultry farming. In 2022, the country produced 21.6 million tons of milk (19.9 million tons — cow's milk), which is 2.6% more than in 2021. The most popular categories of milk products are ayran and yogurt. In 2022, the production of ayran increased by 6.9% to 766.3 thousand tons, and yogurt — by 3.8% to 1.2 million tons. In 2022, Turkish milk processors also produced about 702.9 thousand tons of cheeses from cow's milk (-4.5% by 2021) and 95.7 thousand tons of butter (+12.8%).

The poultry industry demonstrated positive dynamics during 2018-2022: poultry meat production grew by an average of 2.9% per year over a five-year period. In 2022, the production volume of chicken eggs amounted to 19.8 billion pcs.  Beef production increased by an average of 5.3% per year in 2018-2022. According to the Turkish Institute of Statistics, in 2022, lamb production amounted to 489.4 thousand tons, an increase of 13.9% compared to 2021.

In 2022, fish production amounted to 849.8 thousand tons. Most of fish produced by aquaculture sector — 514.8 thousand tons. The volume of catch in the same year amounted to 335.0 thousand tons or 39.4% of the fish and seafood.

Import of agricultural products

By the end of 2022, Turkey imported agricultural products worth 22.8 billion US dollars, which is 28.2% higher than in 2021. In 2018-2022, the volume of imports of agricultural products grew annually by an average of 15.9%.

In the structure of imports of agricultural products to Turkey in value terms in 2022 the main product was wheat (13.3%). The top 3 imported products also include sunflower oil (9.8%) and soybeans (9.0%). In total, the top 10 products accounted for 55.1% of imports of agricultural products to Turkey.

In 2022, the most significant increase compared to 2021 was observed in the purchase of sunflower oil (+76.6% or +1.0 billion US dollars), corn (+70.1% or +467.2 million US dollars), palm oil (+51.1% or +408.1 million US dollars), as well as cake and soybean meal (+67.5% or +323.8 million USD). At the same time, barley imports in 2022 decreased by 25.5% (-173.9 million US dollars).

In 2022, Russia was the main supplier of agricultural products to Turkey (22.2% value imports), Ukraine (15.1%), Brazil (9.6%), Malaysia (5.2%) and the USA (4.1%). In total, the top 10 countries accounted for 68.3% of imports of agricultural products in value terms.

Most significantly in 2021-2022, exports of agricultural products to Turkey increased from Ukraine (by 2.2 times or by 1.9 billion US dollars), Russia (by 17.6% or by 755.2 million US dollars) and Brazil (by 46.9% or by 696.4 million US dollars). Ukraine increased the supply of sunflower oil by 16.5 times (from 58.6 to 970.5 million US dollars). Brazil increased exports of soybeans by 32.2% (from 1.1 to 1.4 billion US dollars). Russian exports of agricultural products to Turkey by the end of 2022 amounted to 5.1 billion US dollars. Turkey's imports from Russia increased due to an increase in wheat supplies by 14.0%, sunflower oil by 8.6% and corn by 41.5%.

Export of agricultural products

In 2022, Turkey's exports amounted to 30.1 billion US dollars, an increase of 19.2% compared to 2021. In 2018-2022, the country's exports grew by an average of 13.8% annually.

The basis of exports of agricultural products of Turkey in 2022 was sunflower oil (6.3% of value exports), wheat flour (5.0%), flour confectionery (4.7%), poultry meat (3.6%), and hazelnuts (3.2%). In total, the top 10 exported types of products accounted for 37.3% of exports of the country's agricultural products in value terms.

Exports of sunflower oil increased most significantly in 2022 (by 2.1 times or by 1.0 billion US dollars) and wheat flour (by 35.4% or by 391.3 million US dollars). At the same time, hazelnut exports decreased by 25.2% (or $327.6 million). 

Turkey is among the main importers of agricultural products in 2022. These included Iraq (17.5% of exports in value terms), Russia (7.7%), the USA (6.4%), Germany (5.9%) and Syria (3.5%). In total, the ten largest importers accounted for 52.9% of Turkey's agricultural exports.

Compare to 2021, the most significant increase was demonstrated in Iraq (+50.2% or +1.8 billion US dollars), Russia (+24.5% or +456.4 million US dollars) and the United States (+31.0% or +455.3 million US dollars). Iraq increased purchases of sunflower oil 3.6 times (from 137.4 to 490.4 million US dollars) and poultry meat by 53.3% (from 424.1 to 649.9 million US dollars). The United States increased imports of soybean meal and cake by 3.1 times (from 32.0 up to 98.9 million US dollars), as well as by 29.3% of fruit and vegetable juices (from 243.5 to 314.7 million US dollars). Russia increased imports of frozen fish by 58.3% (from 144.9 to 229.4 million US dollars).

At the same time, imports from Germany (-4.7% or -87.5 million US dollars) and Italy (-17.4% or -191.1 million US dollars) decreased. Germany reduced purchases of fruits and  nuts by 11.1% (from 298.5 to 265.3 million US dollars). Italy reduced imports of hazelnuts by 33.3% (from 443.7 to 296.0 million US dollars).