5 things to do in Meghalaya - the abode of clouds

Animal husbandry

Since 2017, Russia has recorded an annual increase in raw milk production. According to Rosstat, over the past six years, the country has increased the production of milk by 9.3%, to 33 million tons.
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The agricultural sector plays an important role in the Turkish economy and is developing dynamically: agricultural input in GDP more than doubled from $24 billion to $58 billion in 2002-2022. 
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South Africa belongs to the number of countries with insufficiently favorable conditions for agriculture, which is mainly due to the arid and hot climate, as well as the oversaturation of soils with salts.
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Agriculture accounts for 24.3% of the GDP and 64.3% of the employed population of Tanzania. For a long time, the country has been a net exporter of agricultural products.
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The share of agriculture in the Serbian economy is gradually decreasing due to the active development of the service sector and industry.
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According to the latest production cost and producer price calculations in the organic sector, producers in Germany received an average 60.36 cents/kg of organic milk in the accounting year 2022/23, as follows from the press release of the European Milk Board.
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Indonesia's agricultural sector accounted for 12.4% of GDP and 29.0% of the employed population in 2022. The favorable climate, as well as extensive fertile lands allow the country to maintain the status of a net exporter of agricultural products.
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Agriculture in DR Congo accounts for about 17.4% of GDP and 55.3% of the employed population. Although the majority of the country's population is employed in the agricultural sector, production is based on low-efficiency subsistence farming
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The share of agriculture in the economy of Mauritius is gradually decreasing due to the active development of industry and services. Today, agriculture accounts for 3.4% of GDP and 5.1% of the employed population.
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According to the quarterly update of the cost study established by the Farm Economics and Rural Studies Office (BAL), milk production costs in Germany amount to 49.73 cents per kg (as of July 2023). With 46.87 cents per kg, costs were at a lower level in April 2023.
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Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with the care, breeding, and management of domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, poultry, and other livestock. The primary goal of animal husbandry is to improve the quality, quantity, and efficiency of animal production to meet human needs, which include meat, milk, eggs, fiber (like wool), leather, and labor.

Key Aspects of Animal Husbandry:

Breeding and Genetics: Selective breeding to improve specific traits in animals, such as growth rate, milk production, fertility, and temperament. This includes traditional breeding techniques as well as modern methods like artificial insemination and genetic engineering.
Feeding and Nutrition: Providing a balanced diet to ensure the health and productivity of animals. Nutritional requirements vary between species and according to the animal's age, size, and production status (e.g., lactating cows require a different diet compared to non-lactating ones).
Healthcare and Veterinary Medicine: Preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals. This includes vaccinations, parasite control, and administering medications, as well as ensuring good hygiene and biosecurity measures to prevent disease outbreaks.
Housing and Environment: Creating appropriate living conditions for different types of animals. This involves providing suitable shelter, ventilation, temperature control, and space to promote the welfare and productivity of the animals.
Product Processing: Involves the processing of animal products such as milk into dairy products, butchering animals for meat, shearing wool from sheep, and collecting eggs from poultry.
Welfare and Ethical Considerations: Ensuring humane treatment of animals, including adequate space, access to food and water, and minimizing stress and suffering. Ethical considerations in animal husbandry have gained increased attention, leading to the development of various animal welfare standards and certifications.

Types of Animal Husbandry:

Dairy Farming: Raising cows, goats, or other animals for milk production.
Poultry Farming: Breeding chickens, turkeys, ducks, and other birds for meat and eggs.
Aquaculture: Rearing of aquatic animals like fish, crustaceans, and mollusks in controlled environments.
Apiculture: Beekeeping for honey production and pollination services.
Sheep and Goat Farming: For meat, milk, and wool production.
Pig Farming: Raising pigs primarily for meat.

Challenges in Animal Husbandry:

Sustainable Practices: Balancing productivity with environmental sustainability, including managing waste, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and conserving resources.
Animal Health and Diseases: Outbreaks of diseases like avian influenza, mad cow disease, and African swine fever can have significant economic impacts.
Market Fluctuations: Variations in demand and prices for animal products can impact profitability.
Ethical and Welfare Concerns: Public concern about the ethical treatment of animals and the push for higher welfare standards in farming practices.

Advancements in technology, genetics, nutrition, and veterinary medicine continue to play a significant role in the evolution of animal husbandry. These advancements aim to improve efficiency, product quality, animal health, and welfare, while also addressing environmental and ethical concerns.