5 things to do in Meghalaya - the abode of clouds


The growth rate of Russia's GDP in January amounted to 4.6% YoY against 4.4% YoY in December 2023, according to data from the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia.
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The coal mining industry is still considered a promising industry at the global level, and coal itself is the most affordable fuel. And this is despite the process of transition of many developed countries to green energy
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The World Bank (WB) believes that further escalation of the conflict in the Middle East could threaten to increase oil prices by 75% — up to $ 157 dollars per barrel. Such an assessment is given in the October report of the World Bank "Prospects for commodity markets".
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Due to the European embargo imposed from August 10, 2022 on the import of coal from the Russian Federation, the volume of Russian exports by the end of last year sank by 7.5%. China and India are among the main economic partners of Russia at the moment, which partially offset the decline.
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The Association of value-added grain processing companies (Starch Union) presented the results of the industry for 2022. The added value grain processing industry continues to grow slowly but steadily.
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Serbia produces 70% of its electricity from coal and 30% from hydropower, with the remainder coming from wind and solar. Despite government plans to transition to green energy solutions
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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is formed from the remains of vegetation that has been subjected to high levels of heat and pressure over millions of years. Coal is categorized into different types based on its carbon content, calorific value, and the amount of moisture present. The main types include lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite.

Uses of Coal:

Electricity Generation: The most significant use of coal is in electricity generation. Coal-fired power plants burn coal to produce steam, which then drives turbine generators to produce electricity.
Steel Production: Coal is used in the production of steel. It is converted into coke, a pure form of carbon, which is then used in blast furnaces as a reductive agent for iron ore.
Cement Manufacturing: Coal is used as an energy source in cement production to heat the kiln.
Industrial Fuel: Apart from being used for electricity and heat, coal is also used as a fuel for industrial purposes, such as in chemical and paper manufacturing.
Gasification and Liquefaction: Coal can be converted into synthetic gas or liquid fuels, which are cleaner-burning alternatives to traditional coal combustion.
Domestic Heating: In some regions, coal is still used for domestic heating and cooking.

Advantages of Coal:

Abundance: Coal is one of the most abundant fossil fuels available worldwide.
Stable and Reliable Energy Source: Coal-powered plants provide a stable source of energy, which can be ramped up or down depending on the demand.
Economic: It provides an economical source of energy, especially in countries with significant coal reserves.

Challenges and Environmental Impact:

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Burning coal is a major source of CO2 emissions, contributing to global warming and climate change.
Air Pollution: Coal combustion releases pollutants like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, leading to air quality issues and health problems.
Mining Impacts: Coal mining can lead to land degradation, habitat destruction, and water pollution. Underground mining also poses risks such as mine collapses and methane explosions.
Waste Management: Coal combustion generates large amounts of ash and slag, which need to be handled and disposed of responsibly.

Transition to Cleaner Alternatives:

Due to its environmental impact, there is a global shift toward cleaner energy sources. Many countries are reducing their reliance on coal and investing in renewable energy sources like wind, solar, and hydroelectric power. The transition also includes the adoption of cleaner coal technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), to mitigate the environmental impact of coal use.

Safety and Regulations:

Mining Regulations: Ensuring the safety of coal miners is crucial, with stringent regulations and practices in place to prevent accidents and health hazards.
Emission Controls: Modern coal-fired power plants are equipped with advanced emission control technologies to reduce pollutants.

In summary, while coal has been a crucial energy source, particularly for electricity generation and industrial processes, its significant environmental and health impacts are driving a global transition towards more sustainable and cleaner energy sources. Efforts to reduce coal dependency and to implement cleaner coal technologies are key to managing its environmental footprint.