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Renewable energy

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The increasing demand for electricity leads to the need to increase production capacity. From 2010 to 2021, the capacity increase in the global electric power industry reached 58% or 2933 GW
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Serbia produces 70% of its electricity from coal and 30% from hydropower, with the remainder coming from wind and solar. Despite government plans to transition to green energy solutions
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Renewable energy refers to energy generated from natural resources that are continually replenished. Unlike fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), which are finite and produce significant greenhouse gases when burned, renewable energy sources have a much lower environmental impact. The use of renewable energy is crucial in addressing climate change, reducing air pollution, and promoting sustainable development.

Types of Renewable Energy:

Solar Energy: Harnesses energy from the sun using solar panels. It's used for electricity generation and heating (like solar water heaters).
Wind Energy: Utilizes wind turbines to convert wind power into electricity. Wind farms can be found both onshore and offshore.
Hydropower: Generates electricity by using the energy of flowing water. It includes large-scale dams as well as smaller, run-of-the-river installations.
Biomass Energy: Involves burning organic materials (wood, agricultural residues) or converting them into biofuels (like ethanol and biodiesel). It can be used for heating, electricity generation, and as vehicle fuel.
Geothermal Energy: Taps into the Earth's internal heat for heating and to generate electricity. It's reliable and consistent, unlike some other renewable sources.
Ocean Energy: Includes tidal energy, wave energy, and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). It's a less common but promising renewable energy source, particularly in coastal areas.

Advantages:

Sustainability: Renewable sources won't run out, making them a sustainable choice for long-term energy needs.
Lower Emissions: They produce lower greenhouse gas emissions and pollutants compared to fossil fuels.
Energy Security: Diversifying energy supply with renewables can reduce dependence on imported fuels, enhancing energy security.
Economic Benefits: The growth of the renewable energy sector creates jobs and stimulates economic development.

Challenges:

Intermittency: Some renewable sources, like solar and wind, are not continuously available and depend on weather conditions.
Storage: Energy storage technologies are crucial for managing the intermittent nature of some renewables, but these can be expensive and are still under development.
Infrastructure Needs: Shifting to renewable energy can require significant changes in existing energy infrastructure and grids.
Costs: Initial investment costs can be high, though operating costs are typically lower than fossil fuels, and prices have been decreasing.

Future and Growth:

Technological advancements continue to improve efficiency and reduce the costs of renewable energy systems.
Governments and international organizations are increasingly promoting renewable energy through policies, subsidies, and research funding.
The integration of renewable energy into national and global energy systems is critical to meet climate goals, like those outlined in the Paris Agreement.

In summary, renewable energy represents a clean, sustainable, and increasingly cost-effective solution to meet the world's energy needs. Its growth and development are vital for environmental protection, economic growth, and energy security.